Work Energy

A simple website  that

is far more profound than any other site on the internet.


One of the earliest lessons in physics involves three simple ideas / formulas momentum, work and kinetic energy.  When two of these combine —  work and kinetic energy —  they form the basis of the Work Energy Theorem (Fd cos θ = ½ mv2).  

Everyone sees these three concepts as perfectly valid and yet few physicists actually know of the gross errors that occurred during their development.   Fortunately, unmasking their flaws is astonishingly easy; it only requires one simple and important thing the viewpoint of a scientist.   Unfortunately, this viewpoint is rare among today's "scientists" and "physicists".   Evidently, they have forgotten that today's modern understanding evolved over time and as it did, the conventional wisdom of the past was rarely the final word.   Moreover, today's scientist thinks that a "study" constitutes real science; it doesn't.  Real science is done by employing the scientific method, something that was omitted during the development of these three basic ideas.

The Conflict Hiding in Plain Sight

To illustrate one of the flaws within the Work Energy Theorem, consider the following simple exercise and the mathematical example that follows.  

Physicists understand that a form of mechanical energy (work) is defined as a force acting through a displacement.  However, when electrical energy is converted into mechanical,Solenoid the definition / mathematics of "work" changes; it becomes a force acting over time

To convert electrical energy into mechanical energy is both simple and easy; anyone can do this.   You only need four things a 9 volt battery, some magnet wire, a few small round neodymium magnets, and a paper tube just slightly bigger than the magnets.  Wind the wire around the tube with say, 25 -50 turns of wire, and place the magnets inside the tube; create a solenoid in other words.  Once that is done, connect the two ends of the magnet wire to the battery and the magnets will shoot out of one of the tube's ends.   Electrical energy has just been converted into mechanical energy!

Electrical energy, as it is currently defined, is a function of voltage, current and time.   Electrical utilities know and embrace this; they typically charge for electricity by the kilowatt hour (essentially voltage x current x 1,000 x time).   This understanding is rather well known amongst electricians, engineers and physicists.   Nothing new in other words but, when you convert electrical energy into mechanical, an anomaly, an inconsistency if you will, turns up.

When electrical energy is fed into the solenoid, a mechanical force is the result.   This mechanical force occurs because the solenoid produces a magnetic field that interacts with the magnets inside the solenoid.  Electrically, this force is the direct result of an applied voltage which in turn causes an electrical current to flow.   In other words, it takes both voltage and an electrical current to produce magnetic force and thus mechanical force.   So, when you convert electrical energy into mechanical energy (the acceleration of the neodymium magnets), the amount of mechanical energy is a function of force (voltage x current) and time.  

Mechanically, work is defined as a force acting through a distance (displacement in formal terms).  Electrically, "work" is defined as a force (voltage x current) acting over time.   This is an anomaly, an unseen conflict / inconsistency that physics students are never told about because their teachers and professors never saw it when they were students themselves. 

Mathematical Example 

Imagine converting a known quantity of electrical energy into mechanical.   And to make this very easy to follow, we will use the simplest case possible — accelerating an object from rest.   Electrical energy could be configured to provide an average mechanical force of 10 newtons that acts for 1 second.  We will use this exact amount of electrical energy twice; first to accelerate a 1 kg object and then then on a 2 kg object.  

The equations that apply are F=ma, v=ta, and ke=½mv2. 

The one-kilogram object

It will accelerate at: a = F ÷ m = 10 ÷ 1= 10 m/s2

Its final velocity will be: v = ta = 1 x 10 = 10 m/s

It experiences a change in Kinetic Energy of: ½mv2 =  ½ x 1 x 10 x 10 = 50 joules

The two-kilogram object

It will accelerate at: a= F ÷ m = 10 ÷ 2 = 5 m/s2

Its final velocity will be:  v = ta = 1 x 5 = 5 m/s

It experiences a change in Kinetic Energy of:  ½mv2 =  ½ x 2 x 5 x 5 = 25 joules

The final values of mechanical energy (50 joules and 25 joules) do not match despite the fact that the exact same amount of electrical energy (10 newtons of force for 1 second) was used each time. 


The Bottom Line

Without question, a problem exists within physics as she is taught.  And it exists primarily because no one believes any problem could exist.  Upon seeing this glaringly obvious conflict between electrical and mechanical energy, the go-to reaction is to find some way of reconciling the anomally by adding all manner of complications.  And the sole purpose in complicating the simple truth of the given example is to protect the status quo.

If one is only skeptical to new ideas and discoveries, he is not a true skeptic or a real scientist.  The historical record contains many examples when the "known facts" were wrong.   Ironically, today's physicist honors and reveres those overturned old and incorrect "facts" but, he is unwilling to re-examine those things he thinks he "knows all about".    

Click on this "history" link to see how today's Work Energy Theorem came to be and the series of errors that occurred during that time. 

NOTE:  This website is under construction.  There will be more information in the next few days and weeks, all of which can be verified independently, that adds to the woes of the Work Energy Theorem.

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