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What this website lacks in polish, it makes up for in another way; it shows

a flaw in physics that is impossible to dismiss.


There was a time when I did not believe in the Scientific Method.  This was because I noticed a flaw within the subject and I mistakenly reasoned that the Scientific Method was to blame.   You may not believe it but, the scientific method was never applied to certain key fundamental principles including momentum.  

Every first year physics student learns about Newton's Three Laws of Motion.   They are also often told that those Laws combine to form another Law - The Law of Conservation of Momentum.   Stated briefly, the amount of motion within a closed system remains unchanged regardless of what occurs in that system providing nothing enters or leaves.

The Newton's Cradle

Physics Instructors will sometimes use a Newton's Cradle to illustrate that Newton's Laws and the Law of Conservation of Momentum are valid.   When an instructor pulls back on one of the balls and releases, it swings back, a collision takes place, and a different ball pops out the other side.   If he pulls back on two balls, two balls exit.

The problem is that what a physics instructor emphasizes and what happens are two different things.  To wit, when one ball collides with another a slight thermal increase occurs within both balls.  There is also a clicking sound that should suffice as auditory evidence for a slight reduction in the velocity of the ball leaving the collision.  Velocity is also diminished due to the balls interaction with the air and the strings suspending the balls but, that is far less important than the collisions themselves.

The energy required to make the sound can only come from the kinetic energy of the moving balls and occurs due to a vibration in the balls after a collision takes place.  If such a collision occurs in a vacuum, no sound would be possible but, the vibrations in the balls still occur.  And since it requires energy to make something vibrate, there must be a reduction in the amount of kinetic energy every time a collision happens by an amount exactly equal to the increase in the thermal energy of the balls.  If there is less kinetic energy, there must be a corresponding reduction in momentum since both momentum and kinetic energy use the exact same variables.

Kinetic energy has ½mv2 as its formula; it is a function of mass and velocity.  Momentum is also a function of mass and velocity; it is the product of mass and velocity mv; there are no other variables for either formula.  When the first ball strikes the others, it produces a clicking sound and a tiny bit of kinetic energy transforms into another form  notably thermal.  This means that the ball that leaves after a collision is traveling ever so much slower than the ball that was originally caused the collision.  Instead of moving at velocity v at the moment of impact that the original ball travelled at, the ball leaving the collision is moving at vz where v is slightly greater than vz ( v  >  vz ).

This means that the momentum in this closed system has changed  mv ≠ mvz.  In other words, the Law of Conservation of Momentum is not valid in every situation; it is only thought to be true because an authority  a physics instructor  said it was so.   Over the past few centuries, this Law has become so ingrained within the physics community that it can be difficult to see momentum is not in fact conserved.   This is due to the human frailties we all share; the scientific method tells an entirely different story. 

Experimental Confirmation

If you do not believe that kinetic energy transforms when the balls collide, a simple experiment easily demonstrates this fact.   All you need is a Newton's Cradle and a stopwatch. 

Step #1 -  Pull a single ball back and allow it to strike the others just as every science teacher or physics professor has done at one time or another.   Time how long it takes for the balls to stop colliding and how long they take to come to a complete rest.

Step #2 - Move all but one ball from the cradle, pull this lone ball back to the same point as before or even slightly less and release it.  Time how long it takes to come to rest.

Step #3 - Compare the times (three different ones).   It will be quite apparent that when the balls collide, that action does not last very long compared to the times no collisions occur.  This demonstrates that when balls collide, the ball's kinetic energy transforms into another form at a greater rate than balls that just swing back and forth in the air. 

The Bottom Line

Momentum is not a conserved aspect of this universe.  It has always been assumed to be so because no one has taken the time to verify it.  If there is one exception, as shown above, there may be others but, one thing is clear; a flaw within the simplest fundamentals of physics does exist. 

It always amazes me when I hear physicists talking about time travel, black holes, dark matter and such as plausable phenomenon.   These are the inferred ideas that come from their understanding of the known laws of physics and yet they are completely willing to rule out the possibility that the scientists of the 17th century goofed in some slight way.    

 Click on this link to the "History" of the Work Energy Theorem to learn more.



For Comments, Questions, or to report any assumed errors I may have made please email me at SurprisedOwl@gmail.com.


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